Kisan Mobile Advisory Service

KVK Mokokchung is providing location specific advisory service on agri and allied activities in both local and english dialets through short messaging Service to all registered farmers, so far 350 registered farmers are availing this facility. Registration is free for all interested farmers of Mokokchung district and can be done by sending an e-mail to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. / This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or sending a sms in the following numbers-9402343069/ 9615747236, 9436604002.

Package of practices of broccoli

Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is an important cole crop. Broccoli is usually boiled or steamed. It contains high amount of vitamins A, C and minerals like K, P, Ca, Fe and also thiamine, riboflavin, niacin. It is the richest source of protein among cole crops. A high intake of broccoli has been found to reduce the risk of cancer and also prevents heart disease.

 

Varieties:

 Solan Green Head, KTS, Lucky, Fiesta, Pushpa, Aiswarya 

Climate: 

                It is a cool season crop but sensitive to very low and high temperature. The head becomes loose in high temperature. Temperature range of 10°C – 25°C is optimum for its proper growth, while 15°C – 20°C for heading stage.

Soil:

               Broccoli grows best on a well-drained, medium to heavy soil with high organic matter content. Broccoli requires moist soil for fast and proper growth. The shoots become more fibrous under dry soil. It does well in pH range of 5.0 to 6.5. 

Nursery raising:

•Plough the nursery beds thoroughly and mix with well rotten FYM

•Treat the seeds with Thiram or Captan @ 2.5g/kg of seed before sowing. 

•Sow the seeds in the beds during the month of  September at a spacing of 8 - 10 cm between  lines, 2 – 3 cm between seeds and 1 - 1.5 cm  deep. 

•After sowing irrigate lightly and protect from heavy rains. 

•Keep the beds free from weeds. 

•About 400 – 500g seed is sufficient to raise seedlings for one hectare.

Transplanting:

               The seedlings become ready for transplanting after 4 – 6 weeks of sowing. The planting of over mature seedlings should be avoided. Seedlings are transplanted 45cm apart within and between the rows. In very rich soils, spacing can be reduced to 45cm X 30cm to avoid stem hollowness due to rapid plant growth.  

Manures and fertilizers: 

Apply  15 – 20 tonnes FYM, 80 – 100kg N, 80kg P and 60kg K. Full dose of P, K and half of N are applied at the time of land preparation. The remaining half dose of N should be top dressed in 2 equal split doses. The first is applied 4 – 5 weeks after transplanting, whereas the second dose before head formation.  

Irrigation:  

               Broccoli needs sufficient moisture in the soil for uniform and continuous growth of plants. Therefore, frequent irrigation at 10 – 15 days is given depending upon weather conditions. The dry conditions adversely affect the quality and yield of shoots by being more fibrous. On the other hand, water logging condition depresses plant growth.  

Intercultural operations: 

               The crop should be kept free of weed. Shallow hoeing should be done to remove weeds and also for breaking the surface crust to facilitate better aeration and water absorption. Since it is a shallow-rooted crop, hoeing should not be done beyond the depth of 5 – 6cm to avoid injuries to the roots. A light earthing-up at final hoeing is beneficial.

Harvesting: 

           The heads having 10 – 15cm stems should be harvested with a sharp knife when its bud cluster is green and compact. If harvesting is delayed the bud cluster becomes loose. Pick regularly to ensure the heads are at their tastiest and to encourage the formation of side-shoots.  

Yield: 

              Average yields of 100 – 150 Q/ha can be obtained depending upon the variety. 

Pest   

1. Aphids

 These are greenfly and blackfly which will be clearly visible on the leaves and especially tender young shoots. These seriously weaken the plant.

Control:

Protect the crop with Garlic fire spray preparation

2. Caterpillars

These are visible as they much their way through the leaves. The cure is simply to pick them off by hand.

4. Cabbage Gall Weevil:

 Stunted growth and misshapen roots with maggots appearing inside swellings near roots.

Control:

•Remove and destroy infected plants if serious.

•If attack is only minor then harvest affected plants first. 

5. Cabbage Diamond-black Moth: 

 Inner leaves get riddled with caterpillars showing round transparent cuticular patches caused by feeding. 

Control:

          a) Spray Bt product like Delfin 3G @ 1 

                gm/litre. 

            b) Spraying of neem based 

               formulations @ 4 ml/litre give good

               result. 

 Diseases

1. Clubroot

 Leaves turn bluish and wilting turning into a weak dying plant. When inspected, the roots will appear to be thick and distorted mass.

Control:

            Improve crop rotation and never grow broccoli in this area again for few years.

2. Downy Mildew

Light grey powdery patches on the leaves and shoots, normally appearing in spring. The mildew will get right into the plant, eventually killing it.

Control: 

            i. Neem seed kernel 5 ml/litre spray after 25 – 30 days after transplanting. ii. Neem oil 5 ml/litre -15 days after 1st  spray of Neem seed kernel. 

iii. Neem oil 5 ml/litre - 30 days after    Neem seed kernel spray. 

Physiological Disorders:

1.Whiptail:

              Deficiency of molybdenum cause whiptail in which the lamina of the newly-formed leaves become leathery, irregular and consisting of only the mid-rib

Control:

              a) This can be corrected by soil

                  application of 1-1.5 kg     

                  molybdenum before planting. 

              b) Foliar spray of 0.01% solution of

                 Ammonium molybdate helps to

                 check this disorder. 

2.Browning Head:

              It results from boron deficiency. First water-soaked areas appear on bud clusters which in turn pinkish or rusty-brown in advanced stages resulting in rotting. 

Control:

             a) Soil application of Borax or

               Sodium  Borate @ 20 kg/ha will

               prevent the disorder. 

              b) Foliar spray of 0.25-0.5% solution of  borax is more effective than the former one, especially when the deficiency is acute. The affected portion does not recover fully but helps in appearance of new, healthy bud clusters.

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