Kisan Mobile Advisory Service

KVK Mokokchung is providing location specific advisory service on agri and allied activities in both local and english dialets through short messaging Service to all registered farmers, so far 350 registered farmers are availing this facility. Registration is free for all interested farmers of Mokokchung district and can be done by sending an e-mail to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. / This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or sending a sms in the following numbers-9402343069/ 9615747236, 9436604002.

Tapioca- A Promising Livestock Feed

Tapioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz) which is also known as Cassava has its origin in Latin America where it has been grown by the indigenous Indian population for at least 4000 years. After the discovery of the Americas, European traders took the crop to Africa as a potentially useful food crop; later it was also taken to Asia to be grown as a food security crop and for the extraction of starch. 

 

Some of the key characteristics of the crop are-

Efficiency in producing carbohydrate

Tolerance to drought and to impoverished soils 

High flexibility with respect to the timing of planting and harvesting.

Tapioca yields vary with cultivars, season of planting, soil type and fertility. With improved varieties and under good management practices, they can reach 20-25 tonnes per hectare.

Both tapioca roots and leaves are suitable for human consumption. The first are an important source of carbohydrates and the second, of proteins and minerals.

A typical tapioca root and leaves is composed of 

1.Moisture 70 % 

2.Starch 24 %

3.Fibre  2 %

4.Protein 1%

5.Other elements 3 %.

Because of its high water content, the root is bulky and highly perishable, so processing should be carried out within 48 hours of harvest. Processing permits to enhance the value of the product by 

1.Removing the naturally-occurring toxins found in the root

2.Reduces the weight of the product

3.Facilitates ease in its transportation to markets

4.Lessens post-harvest losses 

5.Extends the product's shelf-life.

The second most important utilization of tapioca worldwide is livestock feed. Roots and leaves are fed mainly to pigs in the tapioca producing areas, either fresh or cut and dried.

It can be use for feeding pigs, cattle, goat and poultry. It is similar to feed grains as it consists almost entirely of starch and is easy to digest. The roots are, especially suited to feeding young animals and fattening pigs. Many feeding experiments have shown that tapioca provides a good quality carbohydrate, which may be substituted for maize.

Most of the tapioca cyanide is found in the form of a cyanogenic glucoside known as linamarine. Processing of tapioca roots (sun drying, ensiling) reduces the content in the final products to levels lower than 100 ppm. 

Different Tapioca Products for Animal Feeding are

1.Tapioca chips

2.Broken roots

3.Pellets

4.Tapioca meal

5.Tapioca residual pulp

In Mokokchung district the chipping and sun drying of fresh tubers and leaves are very popular among the farmers. 

Certain precautions need to be taken to guarantee satisfactory performance of stock on tapioca meal diets. These include the removal of cyanide through boiling, drying, grating, soaking, fermentation, or a combination of these processes to produce final products containing not more than 100 ppm HCN, and the prevention of microbial activity during sun-drying, particularly in a humid environment. 

The protein deficiency of tapioca also demands higher protein supplementation in such rations. Tapioca can affect mineral balance resulting in parakeratosis in pigs which can be prevented by including zinc salts in the diet. Dustiness of tapioca-based rations can be removed by adding molasses, suitable oils or by pelletizing to make the feed acceptable to pigs.

Growing pigs fed on a diet containing 40 percent tapioca peel and discarded small tubers have been observed to perform satisfactorily.

One sure way to encourage the use of tapioca tuberous roots in livestock feeding is to exploit its agronomic potential which is much simpler than other field crops. 

Incorporation of tapioca peel and leaves (locally produced) in the ration of poultry and pig rations can led to reduction of the cost of production.

As per the latest report of District Agriculture Office Mokokchung for the year 2009-10,the total area under tapioca is 3780 hectare with a total production of 81278 metric tons and a productivity of 21502 kg per hectare.  

This is a clear indication about the production potentiality in the district which can be tapped for fruitful utilization in the livestock production system.

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